With extremely limited conventional oil reserves of just 1 million barrels, Jordan has one of the smallest upstream oil industries in the Middle East and North Africa region.
Amman is ramping up its exploration activities for both oil and gas in a quest for energy self-sufficiency; however, significant developments have yet to go ahead.
Jordan produces just 160 barrels a day (b/d) of oil and relies almost entirely on energy imports, which are a major drain on government funds. The main focus for the countrys hydrocarbons sector is oil shale and, with reported reserves of 34 billion barrels, the kingdom is keen to start production.
Spread across more than 20 locations, Jordans oil shale deposits represent the worlds fourth-largest reserves, but, as with all non-conventional sources of hydrocarbons, there are several challenges associated with production. Oil shale is costly to extract and can have a serious environmental impact. The rock needs to be heated to 500 degrees Celsius in order for synthetic oil to be produced. The process adds a significant cost margin to production.
|Major oil and gas projects|
|Project||Client||Status||Value ($m)||End date|
|Central region oil shale development||Eesti Energia/YTL Corporation/NEI||Study||6,000||2022|
|Port of Aqaba liquefied petroleum gas terminal||Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources||Execution||1,000||2016|
|Hamza oil field redevelopment||Natural Resources Authority||Study||800||2019|
|Amman strategic reserve terminal for petroleum products||Ministry of Energy & Mineral Resources||Execution||400||2016|
|Port of Aqaba liquefied natural gas terminal||Aqaba Development Corporation||Execution||100||2015|
|For further information visit www.meed.com/meedprojects|
Despite the cost implications, several companies are exploring Jordans reserves to see if production is possible. Amman is encouraging exploration as it believes oil shale could offer the country the energy security it has lacked in recent years. By 2020, it expects oil shale to provide 14 per cent of Jordans energy requirements.
Jordan Oil Shale Company (Josco) is owned by the UK/Dutch Shell and was formed in 2009 to establish the commercial viability of Jordans oil shale deposits. The company has a large concession that covers the Azraq and Al-Jafr blocks in central Jordan. As of mid-2014, the commercial potential of the oil shale reserves had yet to be established by Josco.
The local Karak International Oil (KIO) is conducting studies at Al-Lajjun, 110 kilometres south of Amman, near the Dead Sea in western Jordan. KIO is confident it can start producing 4,000 b/d of oil shale by 2017, with production rising to 22,000 b/d by 2020 and 38,000 b/d by 2026. It is estimated that the field will have a 30-year life cycle with a production potential of 160 million barrels.
Jordan Oil Shale Energy Company (Jose) is a subsidiary of Estonias Eesti Energia and is developing the Attarat Um Ghudran deposit. The company is working on two projects: an oil shale processing facility and an oil shale power plant.
Minister of energy and mineral resources: Mohammad Hamed
Key contact: Jordan Oil Shale Company (Josco)
Tel: (+962) 6 580 6333