Cop28 ends with agreement to transition from fossil fuels

13 December 2023
The final text of the 2023 climate agreement has been adopted by 197 countries and the EU

The final negotiations for the Cop28 climate agreement have concluded, with 197 countries and the EU adopting a text that signals a global transition away from fossil fuels.

However, the final text of the agreement omitted language that many countries had wanted to be included, which committed to the phasing down and eventual phasing out of all types of fossil fuels.

Following outrage over a draft of the agreement that was published on 11 December, which omitted a reference to the phasing down or phasing out of all fossil fuels, a new draft was published on 13 December, which has been agreed upon.

The draft text published on 11 December referred to: "Reducing both consumption and production of fossil fuels, in a just, orderly and equitable manner, so as to achieve net zero by, before or around 2050, in keeping with the science".

The revised draft that has been approved in the final session calls on countries to contribute to transitioning away from fossil fuels in energy systems.

The 11 December draft, which stated that in order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, greenhouse gas emissions must peak by 2025, has also been revised to say that "it recognises in scientific modelling that emissions are projected to peak by 2025".

Related readFossil fuel consensus could tip Cop28 success

The final text also recommends tripling renewable energy capacity to 11,000GW by 2030 and doubling energy efficiency annually to 4 per cent during the same time frame.

In addition, the agreement recommends a rapid phase-down of unabated coal and limits on permitting new and unabated coal power generation.

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