He obtained a BA in commerce from the University of Assiout in 1973.

In 1980 he obtained an MSc in economics from the University of Zagazig, and he went on to receive a doctorate from the same university in 1986 in a programme supervised by the University of Kansas.

He worked between 1987-92 as economic adviser to Tourism & Civil Aviation Minister Fouad Sultan, who is credited with a key role in introducing privatisation to Egypt. During this period he also worked as an adviser to the economy & foreign trade minister.

He served as an assistant to the governor of the central bank from 1991-92. He was also on the board of Suez Canal Bankfrom 1988-92.

Between 1992-99 he worked in Kuwait as economic adviser to the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development.

He was appointed deputy governor of the central bank in 1999.